Monday, May 05, 2014

10 Things You Should Do In The 15 Minutes Before A Big Presentation | Business Insider

10 Things You Should Do In The 15 Minutes Before A Big Presentation | Business Insider

Teknologi dan Inovasi

Inovasi dan Kreativiti Dalam Pendidikan
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan inovasi? Kebanyakan kamus memberi makna inovasi sebagai pembaharuan atau perubahan. Pengertian ini di anggap agak longgar dan tidak begitu jelas.
Menurut Ronger E. Miller (1971) inovasi merupakan idea, amalan atau objek yang di anggap baru oleh seseorang. Spencer (1994) menjelaskan inovasi ialah sesuatu yang di anggap baru dan lebih baik daripada yang lama oleh seseorang individu.
Glosari Teknologi Pendidikan (1995) pula merujuk inovasi sebagai idea, konsep atau strategi baru yang boleh mempertingkatkan sesuatu amalan.
ACEID (1977) pula menyatakan bahawa inovasi ialah ‘an effort to introduce a practice in order to bring about a social change. The practice need not be totally new, its efficiency and potentially in a new context are the main criteria used in labelling it as innovation. The emphasis is on change in terms of providing a strategy to deal with a specific local or national problem’.
Sufean Hussin (2001) dalam kertas kerjanya pada Seminar Dasar dan Pengurusan Pendidikan menyatakan inovasi bermaksud pembaharuan, modifikasi, atau membaiki idea, benda, ilmu dan ciptaan seni budaya tamadun dengan tujuan memenuhi fungsi-fungsi tertentu atau memenuhi cita rasa tertentu atau memenuhi pasaran tertentu.
Zaltman et. al (1973) menyatakan inovasi ialah idea, latihan atau bahan artifak yang kelihatan baru pada unit yang menggunakannya.

Oldham dan Cuming (1996) pula menyatakan inovasi ialah kejayaan aplikasi pertama pada sesuatu produk atau proses. Damapour (1991) menyatakan inovasi sebagai mengenerasi perkembangan dan penggunaan idea baru pada organisasi .......selanjutnya...kerta kerja penuh..

Saturday, February 22, 2014

Pembentangan Akademik SSP

Pbs oooo pbs....dasar cantik..tapi kalau belum terhadam...jangan dilaksanakan...

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Wednesday, April 03, 2013

Aplikasi blog bagi tujuan pengajaran dan pembelajaran

Dalam perkembsngan pesat teknologi terkini memungkinksn kita gunakan teknologi blog dalam pnp

Tip Beli Notebook.....


TIP BELI NOTEBOOK



Notebook kini sama pentingnya dengan komputer PC atau lebih dikenali dengan desktop. Ini adalah kerana notebook lebih ringan dan mudah dibawa kemana sahaja. Pada ma sa ini notebook bukan sahaja digunakan oleh golongan professional malah para pelajar turut menggunakannya kerana ia lebih selesa untuk digunakan terutamanya dalam kerja-kerja atau tugasan berkumpulan dan juga untuk membuat persembahan (presentation). Anda bagaimana, sudah memiliki notebook? Jika belum, saya hendak memberikan beberapa tips (yang saya gunakan) yang mungkin berguna untuk anda ketika hendak membeli notebook. Tips ini mungkin sangat berguna bagi mereka yang tinggal di Lembah Kelang.

1-
Perlu tahu keperluan, kenapa beli notebook.
2-
Sediakan peruntukan (budget)
3-
Buat kajian ke pusat-pusat IT utama
4-
Dapatkan senarai harga
5-
Tanya penjual
6-
Tanya jika ada promosi
7-
Bayar pendahuluan
8-
Periksa semula notebook
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Periksa samada perkakasan sampingan adalah lengkap
10-
Pulang dengan hati gembira

Perlu tahu keperluan, kenapa beli notebook.

Adakah anda sering membuat persembahan (presentation) atau melakukan kerja-kerja berkumpulan? Jika ya, notebook adalah jawapannya. Jika tidak cukuplah dengan menggunakan desktop sahaja agar tidak membazirkan wang. Kemudian, anda perlu tahu spesifikasi yang diperlukan jika mahu membeli notebook, misalnya jenis pemproses yang diperlukan, ruang ingatan yang diperlukan perlukan CD Writer atau tidak dan bermacam-macam lagi. Sebagai contoh, jika anda memerlukan sambungan tanpa wayar (wireless) maka anda perlu memikirkan untuk membeli notebook yang menggunakan pemproses Centrino kerana ia telah dikhususkan untuk kegunaan tanpa wayar.

Bagi ruang ingatan pula, anda perlu tahu berapa banyak ruang ingatan yang diperlukan iaitu sama 128 Mb atau 256 atau 512 Mb bergantung kepada jenis kerja yang anda buat. Jika tugasan anda memerlukan banyak kerja-kerja grafik atau pengaturcaraan, pertimbangkanlah ruang ingatan 256 Mb dan keatas. Pada masa yang sama, anda juga perlu tahu tentang ruang ingatan yang diperlukan untuk grafik. Pada ketika artikel ini ditulis, kebanyakan notebook yang ditawarkan dipasaran menyediakan ruang ingatan grafik sebanyak 64 Mb. Selain daripada itu, anda perlu mempertimbangkan samada memerlukan CD Writer atau tidak kerana jika anda tidak memerlukan Cd Writer, maka anda boleh membeli notebook yang hanya dilengkapi degan pemacu CD ROM biasa dan harga akan menjadi lebih murah. Dan lagi satu, saiz paparan skrin. Saiz yang normal ialah 14.1”. Walaubagaimanapun, pada masa ini ada pengeluar yang telah mengeluarkan notebook yang mempunyai paparan sehingga 17’’ yang mungkin disasarkan kepada pengguna yang terlibat dengan kerja-kerja grafik atau mungkin juga untuk hiburan seperti bermain games atau menonton filem.

Sediakan peruntukan (budget)

Peruntukan adalah sangat penting. Jika anda hanya mempunyai peruntukan antara RM3000 hingga 4000, anda sebenarnya sudah mampu membeli notebook yang berkuasa agak tinggi juga malah anda mampu membeli komputer yang tidak berjenama terkenal tetapi mempunyai spesifikasi yang sangat bagus. Pokoknya anda perlu rajin tawar-menawar dengan penjual terutamanya jika anda ingin membeli dipusat-pusat IT utama misalnya di Plaza Low Yat atau Plaza Imbi. Malah jika anda perhatikan betul-betul di Plaza Low Yat misalnya, ada dua atau tiga kedai yang menjual notebook ini sebenarnya adalah dibawah satu syarikat yang sama.

Berbalik kepada peruntukan tadi, jika anda mempunyai peruntukan melebihi RM 4000 hingga 6000, saya mencadangkan anda membeli komputer yang berjenama terkenal seperti Compaq (atau HP), Acer, Toshiba, IBM, Fujitsu atau NEC. Ini adalah kerana, kebiasaannya komputer berjenama terkenal ini mempunyai waranti dan perkhidmatan sokongan pelanggan yang sangat bagus serta meliputi peringkat antarabangsa. Dengan kata lain, jika anda mempunyai masalah menggunakan notebook tersebut ketika berada diluar negara, anda hanya perlu menghubungi pusat khidmat pelanggan dinegara tersebut untuk mendapatkan bantuan.
Buat kajian ke pusat-pusat IT utama
Setelah tahu keperluan dan mempunyai budget, maka buatlah kajian ke pusat-pusat IT utama misalnya jika anda berada dikawasan Lembah Kelang, jangan malas untuk berkunjung ke Plaza LowYat, Plaza Imbi, Sungei Wang ataupun Mid Valley. Ini adalah kerana terdapat pelbagai jenis barang dan aksesori komputer yang ditawarkan disana.

Dapatkan senarai harga

Jika anda berkunjung kepusat-pusat IT seperti yang saya nyatakan diatas, dapatkan senarai harga yang biasanya diletakkan dihadapan kedai dan kalau boleh ambil senarai harga dari kebanyakan kedai yang ada disitu, kemudian cuba buat perbandingan harga berdasarkan spesifikasi dan jenama yang sama.

Tanya penjual

Pada masa yang sama, anda perlu rajin bertanya kepada penjual. Ini adalah kerana bukan semua spesifikasi yang tertera dalam senarai harga itu menepati citarasa kita. Adakalanya kita memerlukan customization keatas perkakasan notebook tersebut. Untuk itu, senaraikan spesifikasi yang dikehendaki dan minta penjual menghitung semula harga berdasarkan spesifikasi yang dikehendaki. Gunakan cara yang sama dikedai-kedai yang lain dan buat semula perbandingan harga. Selain daripada itu, anda perlu memeriksa senarai harga dengan betul kerana ada notebook yang tidak disertakan dengan sistem operasi dalam ertikata lain, anda perlu membeli sistem operasi secara berasingan. Bagi mereka yang tidak mahu pening kepala, notebook berjenama terkenal adalah jawapannya kerana notebook-notebook ini biasanya dipakejkan sekali dengan sistem operasi. Anda juga perlu tahu membezakan yang mana satu notebook, PC tablet atau desknote kerana jika dilihat secara fizikal ketiga-tiganya kelihatan sama. Harga notebook biasanya agak murah jika dibandingkan dengan PC Tablet tetapi mahal sedikit jika dibandingkan dengan desknote. Perlu dijelaskan disini bahawa desknote sebenarnya bukanlah notebook kerana ia menggunakan pemproses yang sama seperti desktop bukannya jenis ‘mobile’ yang khusus untuk notebook. Selain daripada itu, kebanyakan desknote tidak didatangkan dengan bateri sebaliknya perlu menggunakan bekalan kuasa elektrik sepanjang masa.

Tanya jika ada promosi

Tips ini mungkin selalu orang terlupa terutamanya bagi mereka yang ‘berat mulut’ dan terlalu mengikut apa yang tertera pada senarai harga. Sebagai contoh, katakan notebook A hanya mempunyai RAM sebanyak 256 Mb sahaja. Sebenarnya ada kedai yang menawarkan proses menaiktaraf RAM kepada 512 Mb dengan percuma sahaja. Begitu juga dengan menambah bebrapa aksesori lain misalnya menaiktaraf pemacu CD-ROM kepada Combo atau menaiktaraf pemproses dengan hanya mengenakan kadar bayaran yang sangat rendah. Ada juga yang menawarkan promosi seperti kad WiFi atau mouse optical secara percuma jika anda membeli notebook dikedai mereka. Pangkalnya, seperti yang saya katakan tadi, anda perlu rajin bertanya kepada penjual.

Bayar pendahuluan

Setelah anda berpuashati dengan harga serta spesifikasi notebook yang ditawarkan, mungkin anda dikehendaki untuk membuat sedikit bayaran pendahuluan (deposit) untuk proses menaiktaraf beberapa komponen atau jika anda membeli mengikut spesifikasi sedia ada, anda hanya perlu membuat bayaran sekaligus. Tetapi sebelum membuat bayaran sekaligus, anda perlu mengikuti langkah 8 dan 9 terlebih dahulu.

Periksa semula notebook

Setelah itu, anda perlu memeriksa semula notebook tersebut. Anda perlu memastikan bahawa kesemua komponen tambahan yang dimasukkan (jika anda menaiktaraf) adalah betul.

Periksa samada perkakasan sampingan adalah lengkap

Langkah seterunsya ialah dengan memeriksa perkakasan sampingan samada lengkap atau tidak. Perkakasan sampingan ini termasuklah adaptor, manual dan CD driver. Pastikan juga anda mempunyai kad waranti (jaminan).

Pulang dengan hati gembira

Sudah selesai membeli apa lagi, pulanglah dengan hati gembira. Kepuasan membeli hanya akan datang jika kita benar-benar membeli notebook mengikut spesifikasi yang dikehendaki disamping harga yang lebih murah dari harga asal, hehe. Mungkin kita boleh ubah sedikit peribahasa Melayu dari alah membeli menang memakai kepada menang membeli menang memakai. Ingat,rajin-rajinlah bertanya kepada penjual.

Oleh - K.Nizam Majalah PC

Friday, July 06, 2012

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Transformasi Dalam Blog "Learning"


Define Learning

As regular readers will know we have been doing some research lately looking at the use of technology for teaching and learning and the training of teachers and trainers. As always one o0f the problems is definitions – what do we mean by technology enhanced learning, what is

So Jenny Hughes has been busy writing a list of definitions. I think it is pretty good. But we would welcome feedback. Do you agree with Jen’s definitions? How could they be improved? What other terms do we need to define?

The use of technology for teaching and learning
We have used this as a preferred term for ALL activities relating to the management, organisation, design, implementation and support of learning and teaching which make of information and computer technologies. This will include institutional use of ICT as well as using ICT at the point of delivery.


e-learning
We have used e-learning to describe the use of ICT by learners and teachers at the point of delivery and, by implication, where the use of the technology is a dominant feature of the teaching or learning or where the pedagogy is dependent on the use of the technology. That is, it is a sub set of ‘the use of technology for teaching and learning’ but does not include organisational use of tools and processes to manage learning.


technology enhanced learning
This is used in preference to e-learning when the use of ICT is to add value to the learning process rather than the learning being dependent on it or where the technology is the basis for the design of the learning activity.


programmed learning and computer based learning
Both these terms have been used to refer to stand alone learning programmes, either web based or on a CDROM / DVD, which are designed to be used by individuals working autonomously or with a minimum level of support. They are often designed by commercial developers for a mass audience or may be heavily customised for a particular context. This was the predominant use of ICT across all sectors in the 1980s but cost of production, among other reasons, has seen a reduction in their importance in the education sector. However, they are still used extensively in the business sector.


blended learning
Learning programmes that combine e-learning methods with face-to-face delivery or traditional learning and teaching methods.


braided learning
A form of collaborative learning whereby online communities combine to answer a question or respond to a learning problem. The resultant ‘braided text’ is characterised by heterogeneity of style and multiple perspectives and it is left to individual users to construct their own meanings. That is, no effort is made by the learners to develop the kind of overall style that formal reports or academic research documents would traditionally demand.


distance learning
This is a term which is less commonly used and one which we have tried to avoid because of its ambiguity. Traditionally, distance learning has been used simply to describe a learning situation in which teacher and learner are geographically separated, often where the identity of one is not known to the other. It does not necessarily involve the use of ICT but may do. It is often, unhelpfully, set in opposition to face-to-face learning but the use of on-line synchronous learning technologies where learners and teachers may be ‘face-to-face’ in a virtual rather than physical space has blurred these boundaries.


formal learning
Learning which takes place within an institution or organisation or other context the designated purpose of which is to provide education or training. It is characterised by the existence of curricula, differentiation of role between teacher and learner and a prescribed relationship between them.


informal learning
learning which takes place in a context which is not externally structured by a learning institution, a teacher, a curriculum or by a particular relationship between teacher and learner. This typically includes learning occurring in the home, in a social context or in the workplace and embedded in activities which are part of a learner’s everyday life. The learning is more likely to be unstructured or structured internally by the learner and is continual.


non formal learning
Learning that occurs in a formal learning environment or context but is not formally recognised or determined by a curriculum or syllabus. It typically involves workshops, community courses, interest based courses, short courses, conference style or seminars and participation is usually voluntary rather than prescribed.


domain
Earlier definitions of formal and informal learning were based on the location in which learning takes place, that is, whether learning occurred in a ‘formal’ learning environment, such as a college, or an ‘informal’ one such as the home. However, this was limited because a lot of informal learning will also take place in institutions which are designed as formal learning environments. Domain is therefore a preferred term to describe the particular physical space in which learning occurs.


workbased learning / workplace learning
In further education these terms are often used interchangeably and refer to two different situations. Workbased learning (WBL) is more typically used to describe employer-led training which may include both on- and off-the-job learning. It is often used to used to distinguish that training sector from the FE colleges. Workplace learning (WPL) is an increasingly used term for teachers learning within their own institutions rather than on external courses. This is an imperfect definition as obviously colleges and adult education centres are employers as well as providers but we have maintained the distinction for convenience.


teachers
The word teacher has been adopted as a generic term that includes adult education tutors, lecturers, trainers and anyone whose core role is the design and delivery of learning experiences. We have used the specific terms where it is necessary to distinguish between them or if we are discussing a particular context where they are in common use.


trainers
We have used trainer in two different ways. Firstly to describe individuals who deliver initial teacher training or continuing professional development i.e teacher trainers. Secondly, to refer to individuals working in the private training or industry sectors when it is necessary to distinguish them from college lecturers or adult education tutors


educators
A broader term covering the all the individuals who have a direct responsibility for the learning of others, whether covered by the qualification framework or not. This may be all of their job (such as a private free-lance trainer or college lecturer) or a small part of their job (for example, a shop-floor craftsman who acts as a mentor.)


education professionals
An even broader term which covers teachers, trainers and educators (see above) but also includes managers (e.g training officers or college principals) and professionals from other disciplines who are working in the education service but who do not have direct responsibility for teaching and learning at the point of delivery


personal ICT skills
By this we mean the capabilities and the technical skills of individuals to use technology. A reasonable level of personal competence in the use of ICT is a necessary but not sufficient baseline for designing and delivering e-learning in the same way that the ability to read is a prerequisite of being able to teach someone else to read, which requires an additional set of skills.


continuing professional development
CPD is taken to mean the conscious process by which individuals update their professional knowledge and develop professional competences throughout their working life in order to respond to a changing work environment. It may be compulsory or voluntary, formal or informal, regulated or flexible.


It is also used to describe the provision of learning opportunities which are designed to maintain, improve and broaden the knowledge and skills of employees and develop the personal qualities required in their professional lives.

personal learning environments
An individual’s combination and use of tools for the purposes of learning. Personal Learning Environments are systems that help learners take control of, and manage their own learning. This includes providing support for learners to set their own learning goals, manage both the content and process of their learning and communicate with others in the process of learning.


learning management system
A Learning Management System (LMS) is a software tool, typically web based, which helps to plan and deliver learning events and to ‘manage’ learners by keeping track of their progress and their performance across a range of learning activities. It also facilitates interaction between teachers and students and among students themselves. Formerly called Managed Learning Environments (MLE)


virtual learning environments / learning content management system
A Learning Content Management System (LCMS) is a software system that supports teaching and learning by facilitating the development, management and publishing of the content that will typically be delivered through the LMS. It provides teachers and trainers with the means to create e-learning content efficiently and provides learners with the means to access it. Formerly called virtual learning environments.


In practice, it is normal to find software solutions that combine learning management and learning content management systems.

web 1, web 2.0, web 3.0, web X
These terms are used to describe paradigm shifts in the ways that people use the world wide web and also the changes in the technology that simultaneously drive and reflect those changes.


web 1
A retrospective label for the first stage of development of the world wide web which was based on linking information. Web users accessed that information and were essentially passive recipients of content and media products created by experts – as they would visit a library or watch television or go to see a film.


web 2.0
The term ‘2.0’ mimics the way developers label new versions of software. However, web 2.0 does not refer to an upgrade in the technical specification of the web, it is a metaphor used to describe how web designers and web users are moving in a new direction. Web 2.0 is based on linking people. A key feature of web 2.0 is the development of social networking software which promotes the development of online communities and allow people to work collaboratively.The other major change has been that web 2.0 applications allow users to generate and publish their own content rather than just being consumers.


web 3.0
The emerging paradigm, still in its infancy, based on linking knowledge. Also called the semantic web, it is enables users to combine data from different sources in innovative ways to generate new meanings.


social software
On-line tools designed to enhance communication and collaboration. These include social networking sites, blogs, wikis and user-generated taxonomies or ‘folksonomies’


communities of practice
Social networks of individuals who share common interests, purposes, artifacts and practice and are a rich source of learning for members of the community. Social software has provided the tools to facilitate the development of on-line communities of practice made up of dispersed users.


digital identity

the aspect of digital technology that is concerned with the mediation of people’s experience of their own identity and the identity of other people and things.

e-portfolios
A purposeful collection of digital items representing ideas, evidence, reflections, feedback, etc, which presents a selected audience with evidence of a person’s learning and/or ability.


pedagogy
We have used this as an umbrella term to cover the processes and practices of teaching, the strategies, methodologies and techniques that are used and also their theoretical basis.


scaffolding

Scaffolding is a term to describe those activities which provide structure and support for e-learners and can include both technical tools and processes. Acquiring and deploying the knowledge and skills to scaffold learning is one way in which e-learning is changing the role of teachers and trainers..

dispositions
Disposition is used [about teachers and learners] to describe the tendencies of individuals to behave and react in a certain way and to take up particular positions. Teachers’ dispositions toward e-learning will be be made up of their attitudes towards technology, their habits as teachers and as technology users, their state of readiness, level of preparation and previous learning history. This will be manifested in the way that they use technology for learning and teaching and the diversity of dispositions needs to be reflected in the design and delivery of teacher training.












A quick summary of some of the recent research on mobile learning.

Mobile devices are becoming ever more important due in main to their ubiquity. The number of mobile phone subscribers will increase to five billion people this year thanks to the growth of smartphones in developed nations and mobile services in poor nations, according to the United Nations (2010).

Industry predictions are that the sales of smart phones, able to access internet services, will surpass that of ;ordinary’ mobile phones by March, 2011. Added to this is the rapid development and take up of all kinds of different mobile devices, ranging from tablets such as the iPad and book readers such as the Kindle.

Although in an early phase, the potential of these devices for teaching and learning is being recognised (indeed so much is being written, it is hard to keep up to date with the research)
Alan Livingston, writing in Educause Quarterly (2009) says:

“The past decade has witnessed two revolutions in comunication technology. The first — the Internet revolution — has changed everything in higher education. The second — the mobile phone revolution — has changed nothing. We’re vaguely aware that our students have mobile phones (and annoyed when they forget to turn them off in class), but it hasn’t occurred to us that the fact they have these devices might have anything to do with our effort to provide them with educational experiences and services.

HELLO? as our students sometimes say when trying to communicate with someone who’s being particularly obtuse. Mobile phone usage among our students has become virtually universal. Isn’t it time for us to stop ignoring and start taking advantage of this fact?”

The definition and scope of mobile learning is central to the debate over the pedagogic use of such devices.
According to MoLeNet, mobile learning can be broadly defined as “the exploitation of ubiquitous handheld technologies, together with wireless and mobile phone networks, to facilitate, support, enhance and extend the reach of teaching and learning.”

The London Mobile Learning Group (LMLG) have been working on conceptualising pedagogies for mobile learning.

“Mobile learning – as we understand it is not about delivering content to mobile devices but instead about the processes of coming to know and being able to operate successfully in and across, new and ever changing contexts and learning spaces.m And, if it is about understanding and knowing how to utilise our everyday life-worlds as learning spaces. Therefore in case it needs to be stated explicitly, mobile learning is not primarily about technology (Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010, p6)

The London Mobile Learning group have developed the idea of a “social-cultural ecology of mobile devices” based on the triangular relationship between structures, cultural practices ad the agency within which they conceptualise the use of mobile devices.

In this approach they say “learning is understood as the process of coming to know and being able to operate successfully in and across ever changing contexts and learning spaces as well as understanding and knowing how to utilise our everyday life worlds as learning spaces. It is viewed as a process of meaning making through communication / conversation across multiple contexts among people within a triangle of social structures, cultural practices and agency as well as an augmentation of the inner, conceptual and outer semiotic resources – increasingly with and through mobile devices.” (Pachler, 2010)

Socio-semantic tools including language, material artefacts and technology mediate the actions of learners as they seek to augment their conceptual resources.

John Cook (UK) develops the idea of mobile phones as mediating tools within augmented contexts for development further through a re-conceptualisation of Vygotsky’s notion of a zone for proximal development as “responsive situations for development’ in recognition of the socio-cultural, economic and technological conditions of the early 21st century.” (Cook, 2010)

Other writers have looked at mobile devices as offering a pedagogy for the social inclusion of at risk groups or people socially marginalised.. Margrit Boeck (2010) says mobile devices are:

  • making learners mobile so that they are able to expand their horizons
  • engaging learners on their own ground and addressing them as people who are learners already and as knowledge makers;
  • according them full recognition in their position and achievements in their lives; as well as of their position as learners and makers of knowledge. In this context,learning means being mobile, being able to change.

Reporting on a symposium on m-learning, Laurillard (2007) reports Geoff Stead as arguing that mobile learning is important for access, personalisation, engagement and inclusion providing learners with control over learning, ownership, and the ability to demand things, and thus meeting the rights of the learner.

Naeve (2005) points to the ability of mobile learning to support more learner centric interest oriented and knowledge pulling types of learning architectures. The traditional educational architectures are based on teacher-centric, curriculum-oriented, knowledge-push. The new demands are largely concerned with a shift along all of these. (Naeve, 2010).

Diana Laurillard (2007) has highlighted the mobility of digital technologies in providing “opportunities for new forms of learning because they change the nature of the physical relations between teachers, learners, and the objects of learning.” (p1).

Nial Winters (2007) suggests we have to address three mobilities in mobile learning – learners, technology objects, and information – and the objects can be differentiated by being in:

  • regional space – 3-dimensional physical space;
  • network space – the social space of participants and technologies; or
  • fluid space – learners, relations, and the object of learning.

At a practical level there are many discussions, often in social media such as community web sites or blogs suggesting how mobile devices can be used in teaching and learning (see for example Hughes, (2010, a). Hughes (2010, b) also provides a useful summary of the arguments for and against the use of mobile devices in the classroom.

The presenters at a 2006 Kaleidoscope Convergence Workshop on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, entitled ‘Inquiry Learning and Mobile Learning’ collectively offered a wide range of learning activities that could be supported through mobile digital tools and environments (Laurillard, 2007):

·         exploring – real physical environments linked to digital guides;

·         investigating – real physical environments linked to digital guides;

·         discussing – with peers, synchronously or asynchronously, audio or text;

·         recording, capturing data – sounds, images, videos, text, locations;

·         building, making, modelling – using captured data and digital tools;

·         sharing – captured data, digital products of building and modelling;

·         testing – the products built, against others’ products, others’ comments or real physical environments;

·         adapting – the products developed, in light of feedback from tests or comments; and

·         reflecting – guided by digital collaborative software, using shared products, test results, and comments

There is a growing body of research over the use of mobile devices for work based learning. Sharples et al, (2005) say “Just as learning is now regarded as a situated and collaborative activity (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989), occurring wherever people, individually or collectively, have problems to solve or knowledge to share, so mobile networked technology enables people to communicate regardless of their location.” (p5).

Liz Kolb (2010) links the use of technologies for learning to the way we communicate, not just in education but in the world of work: “…many are still shying away from this new literacy (even dismissing it as a negative form of communication). Knowing that text messaging is fast becoming the #1 form of communication reminds me that it will also be an important literacy for the 21st century job force.”

Winters, (2007) points to the potential of mobile devices for learning in the workplace to: enable knowledge building by learners in different contexts. and to enable learners to construct understandings. Mobile technology, he says often changes the pattern of learning and work activity.

Naeve (2010) also points out that mobile devices can link learning to knowledge management.

“At the same time, within most organisations, new demands are being placed on effective and efficient knowledge management. Promoting the creation and sharing of knowledge in order to assure the right person with the right knowledge in the right place at the right time for the right cost is the overall aim of these demands.” (Naeve, 2010).
Attwell (2010) has pointed to the potential of mobile devices for developmental learning in the workplace. This allows the bringing together of learning from different context and domains, including the informal learning which is developed through work processes. He outlines the design of a “Work Based Mobile Learning Environment” (WoMBLE).

Perhaps the greatest impact of mobile devices may be in changing the relationship between institutional or classroom based learning and learning in a wider society. Steve Wheeler, in his presentation on Web 3.0. The Way Forward? (2010) says that whilst in the past we have brought the world into the classroom in the future we will bring the classroom into the world.

References

Attwell, G. (2010). Work0based mobile learning environments: contributing to a socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Boeck, M. (2010). Mobile Learning, digital literacies, information habitus and at risk social groups, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Cook, J. (2010). Mobile phones as mediating tools within augmented contexts for development. in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Kolb, L. (2010). From Toy to Tool: Cell Phones in Learning. http://www.cellphonesinlearning.com/.
Laurillard, D. (2007). Pedagogical forms for mobile learning, in: Pachler, N. (ed) (2007) Mobile learning: towards a research agenda. London: WLE Centre, IoE

Livingston, A. (2009). The Revolution No One Noticed: Mobile Phones and Multimobile Services in Higher Education. Educause Quarterly, 32(1).

Naeve, A. (2010). Opportunistic (l)earning in the mobile knowledge society, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Pachler, N., Bachmair, B., & Cook, J. (2010). Mobile Learning. Structures, Agency, Practices. New York USA: Springer.

Pachler, N. (2010). Guest editorial, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Sharples, M. Taylor, J. Vavoula, G. (2005). Towards a Theory of Mobile Learning

Winters, N. (2007) What is mobile learning? In M. Sharples (Ed.), Big issues in mobile learning (pp. 7–11): LSRI University of Nottingham

A quick summary of some of the recent research on mobile learning.

Mobile devices are becoming ever more important due in main to their ubiquity. The number of mobile phone subscribers will increase to five billion people this year thanks to the growth of smartphones in developed nations and mobile services in poor nations, according to the United Nations (2010).

Industry predictions are that the sales of smart phones, able to access internet services, will surpass that of ;ordinary’ mobile phones by March, 2011. Added to this is the rapid development and take up of all kinds of different mobile devices, ranging from tablets such as the iPad and book readers such as the Kindle.

Although in an early phase, the potential of these devices for teaching and learning is being recognised (indeed so much is being written, it is hard to keep up to date with the research)
Alan Livingston, writing in Educause Quarterly (2009) says:

“The past decade has witnessed two revolutions in comunication technology. The first — the Internet revolution — has changed everything in higher education. The second — the mobile phone revolution — has changed nothing. We’re vaguely aware that our students have mobile phones (and annoyed when they forget to turn them off in class), but it hasn’t occurred to us that the fact they have these devices might have anything to do with our effort to provide them with educational experiences and services.

HELLO? as our students sometimes say when trying to communicate with someone who’s being particularly obtuse. Mobile phone usage among our students has become virtually universal. Isn’t it time for us to stop ignoring and start taking advantage of this fact?”

The definition and scope of mobile learning is central to the debate over the pedagogic use of such devices.
According to MoLeNet, mobile learning can be broadly defined as “the exploitation of ubiquitous handheld technologies, together with wireless and mobile phone networks, to facilitate, support, enhance and extend the reach of teaching and learning.”

The London Mobile Learning Group (LMLG) have been working on conceptualising pedagogies for mobile learning.

“Mobile learning – as we understand it is not about delivering content to mobile devices but instead about the processes of coming to know and being able to operate successfully in and across, new and ever changing contexts and learning spaces.m And, if it is about understanding and knowing how to utilise our everyday life-worlds as learning spaces. Therefore in case it needs to be stated explicitly, mobile learning is not primarily about technology (Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010, p6)

The London Mobile Learning group have developed the idea of a “social-cultural ecology of mobile devices” based on the triangular relationship between structures, cultural practices ad the agency within which they conceptualise the use of mobile devices.

In this approach they say “learning is understood as the process of coming to know and being able to operate successfully in and across ever changing contexts and learning spaces as well as understanding and knowing how to utilise our everyday life worlds as learning spaces. It is viewed as a process of meaning making through communication / conversation across multiple contexts among people within a triangle of social structures, cultural practices and agency as well as an augmentation of the inner, conceptual and outer semiotic resources – increasingly with and through mobile devices.” (Pachler, 2010)

Socio-semantic tools including language, material artefacts and technology mediate the actions of learners as they seek to augment their conceptual resources.

John Cook (UK) develops the idea of mobile phones as mediating tools within augmented contexts for development further through a re-conceptualisation of Vygotsky’s notion of a zone for proximal development as “responsive situations for development’ in recognition of the socio-cultural, economic and technological conditions of the early 21st century.” (Cook, 2010)

Other writers have looked at mobile devices as offering a pedagogy for the social inclusion of at risk groups or people socially marginalised.. Margrit Boeck (2010) says mobile devices are:

  • making learners mobile so that they are able to expand their horizons
  • engaging learners on their own ground and addressing them as people who are learners already and as knowledge makers;
  • according them full recognition in their position and achievements in their lives; as well as of their position as learners and makers of knowledge. In this context,learning means being mobile, being able to change.

Reporting on a symposium on m-learning, Laurillard (2007) reports Geoff Stead as arguing that mobile learning is important for access, personalisation, engagement and inclusion providing learners with control over learning, ownership, and the ability to demand things, and thus meeting the rights of the learner.

Naeve (2005) points to the ability of mobile learning to support more learner centric interest oriented and knowledge pulling types of learning architectures. The traditional educational architectures are based on teacher-centric, curriculum-oriented, knowledge-push. The new demands are largely concerned with a shift along all of these. (Naeve, 2010).

Diana Laurillard (2007) has highlighted the mobility of digital technologies in providing “opportunities for new forms of learning because they change the nature of the physical relations between teachers, learners, and the objects of learning.” (p1).

Nial Winters (2007) suggests we have to address three mobilities in mobile learning – learners, technology objects, and information – and the objects can be differentiated by being in:

  • regional space – 3-dimensional physical space;
  • network space – the social space of participants and technologies; or
  • fluid space – learners, relations, and the object of learning.

At a practical level there are many discussions, often in social media such as community web sites or blogs suggesting how mobile devices can be used in teaching and learning (see for example Hughes, (2010, a). Hughes (2010, b) also provides a useful summary of the arguments for and against the use of mobile devices in the classroom.

The presenters at a 2006 Kaleidoscope Convergence Workshop on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, entitled ‘Inquiry Learning and Mobile Learning’ collectively offered a wide range of learning activities that could be supported through mobile digital tools and environments (Laurillard, 2007):

·         exploring – real physical environments linked to digital guides;

·         investigating – real physical environments linked to digital guides;

·         discussing – with peers, synchronously or asynchronously, audio or text;

·         recording, capturing data – sounds, images, videos, text, locations;

·         building, making, modelling – using captured data and digital tools;

·         sharing – captured data, digital products of building and modelling;

·         testing – the products built, against others’ products, others’ comments or real physical environments;

·         adapting – the products developed, in light of feedback from tests or comments; and

·         reflecting – guided by digital collaborative software, using shared products, test results, and comments

There is a growing body of research over the use of mobile devices for work based learning. Sharples et al, (2005) say “Just as learning is now regarded as a situated and collaborative activity (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989), occurring wherever people, individually or collectively, have problems to solve or knowledge to share, so mobile networked technology enables people to communicate regardless of their location.” (p5).

Liz Kolb (2010) links the use of technologies for learning to the way we communicate, not just in education but in the world of work: “…many are still shying away from this new literacy (even dismissing it as a negative form of communication). Knowing that text messaging is fast becoming the #1 form of communication reminds me that it will also be an important literacy for the 21st century job force.”

Winters, (2007) points to the potential of mobile devices for learning in the workplace to: enable knowledge building by learners in different contexts. and to enable learners to construct understandings. Mobile technology, he says often changes the pattern of learning and work activity.

Naeve (2010) also points out that mobile devices can link learning to knowledge management.

“At the same time, within most organisations, new demands are being placed on effective and efficient knowledge management. Promoting the creation and sharing of knowledge in order to assure the right person with the right knowledge in the right place at the right time for the right cost is the overall aim of these demands.” (Naeve, 2010).
Attwell (2010) has pointed to the potential of mobile devices for developmental learning in the workplace. This allows the bringing together of learning from different context and domains, including the informal learning which is developed through work processes. He outlines the design of a “Work Based Mobile Learning Environment” (WoMBLE).

Perhaps the greatest impact of mobile devices may be in changing the relationship between institutional or classroom based learning and learning in a wider society. Steve Wheeler, in his presentation on Web 3.0. The Way Forward? (2010) says that whilst in the past we have brought the world into the classroom in the future we will bring the classroom into the world.

References

Attwell, G. (2010). Work0based mobile learning environments: contributing to a socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Boeck, M. (2010). Mobile Learning, digital literacies, information habitus and at risk social groups, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Cook, J. (2010). Mobile phones as mediating tools within augmented contexts for development. in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Kolb, L. (2010). From Toy to Tool: Cell Phones in Learning. http://www.cellphonesinlearning.com/.
Laurillard, D. (2007). Pedagogical forms for mobile learning, in: Pachler, N. (ed) (2007) Mobile learning: towards a research agenda. London: WLE Centre, IoE

Livingston, A. (2009). The Revolution No One Noticed: Mobile Phones and Multimobile Services in Higher Education. Educause Quarterly, 32(1).

Naeve, A. (2010). Opportunistic (l)earning in the mobile knowledge society, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Pachler, N., Bachmair, B., & Cook, J. (2010). Mobile Learning. Structures, Agency, Practices. New York USA: Springer.

Pachler, N. (2010). Guest editorial, in Pachler, N. (ed) Mobile learning in the context of transformation. Special Issue of International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning

Sharples, M. Taylor, J. Vavoula, G. (2005). Towards a Theory of Mobile Learning

Winters, N. (2007) What is mobile learning? In M. Sharples (Ed.), Big issues in mobile learning (pp. 7–11): LSRI University of Nottingham